Projects per year
I am involved in the development and teaching of basic and advanced courses in design theory and method at the School of Design under the Royal Danish Acadey of Arts, with a particular emphasis on the relationship between theory and practice, as well as academic writing. I am a PhD supervisor, and frequently engage in evaluation or editing commitments. (For details, see CV below.)
My primary research interest is in questions about what it means to change design into an academic discipline theoretically underpinned by research: On what philosophical basis could a foundational and an instrumental theory of design be built - without jeopardizing the valuable legacy from the Arts & Craft tradition? In short: I am focusing on foundational problems of design research, its theory of science, and the relationship between theory and practice.
Initially, as a student, I was bent on developing algorithms for combinatorial search which would enable a computer to propose solutions to space planning problems; e.g. in connection with building layout design or site planning. I moved on to studies of knowledge representations for computerized design support systems (including a proposal about formalizing Alexander's concept of patterns), and to principles of product modeling in the construction industry. However, along with this I became increasingly aware of the complex capabilities of the human designer, so I did some analyses of decision-making in design, particularly with respect to the patterns of reasoning involved in justifying decisions, and the underlying logic. Ontological and epistemological puzzles encountered in the work on product modeling prompted me to engage in exploring the emerging field of philosophy of design. Such explorations remain essential to my current work on foundational problems of design research and its theory of science.
Many of these are available in pdf format via the publications section. (See Google Scholar for a more complete list.)
- [Number of manuscripts in preparation: 1.]
- Galle, P. (2020). Christopher Alexander's battle for beauty in a world turning ugly: The inception of a science of architecture? She Ji: The Journal of Design, Economics, and Innovation, 6(3), 345-385. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sheji.2020.03.002 (Open access, pdf version recommended.)
- Galle, P. (2020). Christopher Alexander's battle for beauty: Any propspects of victory? (Author's response). She Ji: The Journal of Design, Economics, and Innovation, 6(3), 380-385. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sheji.2020.08.003 (Open access, pdf version recommended.)
- Galle, P. (2018). Elements of a shared theory of science for design. Artifact: Journal of Design Practice, 5(1), 1.1-1.32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1386/art.184.108.40.206_1
- Galle, P. (2016). Self-Knowledge by Proxy: Parsons on Philosophy of Design and the Modernist Vision. She Ji: The Journal of Design, Economics, and Innovation, 2(4), 322-342. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sheji.2017.05.001
- Halstrøm, P. L. & Galle, P. (2015). Design as co-evolution of problem, solution, and audience, Artifact Vol. 3, Issue 4, pp. 3.1-3.13. http://dx.doi.org/10.14434/artifact.v3i4.12815
- Galle, P. & Kroes, P. (2015). Science and design revisited. Design Studies 36, pp. 67-72.
- Galle, P. & Kroes, P. (2014). Science and design: identical twins? Design Studies 35 (3), pp. 201-231. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.destud.2013.12.002
- Galle, P. & Brix, A. (2012). Artistic design in a competitive world. In: Projecting Design 2012: Global Design Bridge. Cumulus Conference. Santiago, 2012. pp. 87-92.
- Galle, P. (2011). Foundational and instrumental design theory. Design Issues, 27(4), 81-94.
- Galle, P. (2010). Elementer af en fælles designfaglig videnskabsteori. FORMakademisk, 3(2), 51-76.
- Galle, P. (2009). The ontology of Gero's FBS model of designing. Design Studies, 30(4), 321-339. [Nominated for the Design Studies Best Paper Award 2009.]
- Galle, P. (2009). To bekendelser om designforskning / Two confessions on design research. In A.-L. Sommer, M. Mackinney-Valentin, M. Brobeck, N. Lynge & T. Binder (Eds.), FLUX - Forskning ved Danmarks Designskole / FLUX - Research at the Danish Design School (pp. 126-133). Copenhagen: The Danish Design School Press.
- Kjølsen, T., Sommer, A.-L., & Galle, P. (2008). Written reflection – enhancing the curriculum in design education. Paper presented at the CLTAD 4th International Conference, New York.
- Galle, P. (2008). Candidate worldviews for design theory. Design Studies, 29(3), 267-303.
- Galle, P. (2007). Philosophy of Design: An Introduction [Electronic Version] from https://kadk.dk/en/cephad/philosophy-design-introduction.
- Galle, P. (2007). The CEPHAD Bibliography [Electronic Version] from https://kadk.dk/en/cephad-centre-philosophy-design/cephad-bibliography-philosophy-design.
- Galle, P. (2006). Worldviews for design theory (paper 126). Design Research Society. Wonderground. International conference 2006 Retrieved June 28, 2007, from http://www.iade.pt/drs2006/wonderground/proceedings/index.html
- Galle, P. (2003). Forskning i de kunstneriske designfag. [Research in the artistic design disciplines; in Danish.] Nordisk Arkitekturforskning, 16(3), 81-88.
- Galle, P., & Lasker, G. E. (Eds.). (2002). Knowledge for Creative Decision-Making. Proceedings of a workshop under InterSymp-02. Windsor: International Institute for Advanced Studies in Systems Research and Cybernetics.
- Galle, P. (2002). Exploring implicit design knowledge by logical analysis of arguments. In Knowledge for Creative Decision-Making (pp. 22-26). Windsor: International Institute for Advanced Studies in systems Research and Cybernetics.
- Galle, P. (2002). Philosophy of design: an editorial introduction. Design Studies, 23(3), 211-218.
- Galle, P. (Ed.). (2002). Design Studies 23(3). Special Issue on the Philosophy of Design.
- Galle, P. (2001). Attributes as modes of reference - a conjecture. In G. E. Lasker (Ed.), Advances in Artificial Intelligence and Engineering Cybernetics. Proceedings of InterSymp-01 (pp. 6-9). Windsor: International Institute for Advanced Studies in Systems Research and Cybernetics.
- Galle, P. (2001). Viewpoint: Metatheory in practice. Design Studies, 22(1), 101-102.
- Galle, P. (1999). Design as intentional action: a conceptual analysis. Design Studies, 20(1), 57-81.
- Galle, P. (1998). Product modelling: ‘20 years of stalemate’? Design Studies, 19, 235-240.
- Galle, P. (1997). Towards a formal logic of design rationalization. Design Studies, 18, 195-219.
- Galle, P., & Kovács, L. B. (1996). Replication protocol analysis: a method for the study of real-world design thinking. Design Studies, 17, No. 2, 181-200.
- Galle, P. (1996). Design rationalization and the logic of design: a case study. Design Studies, 17, 253-275.
- Galle, P. (1995). Towards integrated, ‘intelligent’, and compliant computer modeling of buildings. Automation in Construction, 4, 189-211.
- Kovács, L. B., & Galle, P. (1994). The logic of plaza space: representing design knowledge on shape and function. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 21, No 2, 159-177.
- Galle, P. (1994). Computer support of architectural sketch design: a matter of simplicity? Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 21, 353-372.
- Kovács, L. B., & Galle, P. (1993). The logic of walking: representing design knowledge on pedestrian traffic nets. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 20, No 1, 105-118.
- Galle, P. (1993). Review of: Brawne M, ‘From idea to building. Issues in architecture’. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 20, No 6, 729-732.
- Galle, P., & Kovács, L. B. (1992). Introspective observations of sketch design. Design Studies, 13, No 3, 229-272.
- Galle, P., & Kovács, L. B. (1992). The logic of worms: a study in architectural knowledge representation. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 19, No 1, 5-31.
- Galle, P. (1991). Alexander patterns for design computing: atoms of conceptual structure? Planning and Design: Environment and Planning B, 18, 327-346.
- Galle, P. (1990). A language of abstract floor plans. Planning and Design: Environment and Planning B, 17, 173-204.
- Galle, P. (1989). Computer methods in architectural problem solving: Critique and Proposals. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 6(1), 34-54.
- Galle, P. (1989). Branch & Sample: A simple strategy for constraint satisfaction. BIT, 29, 395-408.
- Galle, P. (1987). A Formalized Concept of Sketching in Automated Floor Plan Design. DIKU Report 87/3 (Part 2 of Ph.D. thesis). Copenhagen: Department of Computer Science, University of Copenhagen.
- Galle, P. (1987). A Basic Problem Definition Language for Automated Floor Plan Design. DIKU Report 87/4 (Part 3 of Ph.D. thesis). Copenhagen: Department of Computer Science, University of Copenhagen.
- Galle, P. (1987). Branch & Sample: Systematic Combinatorial Search without Optimization. DIKU Report 87/5 (Part 4 of Ph.D. thesis). Copenhagen: Department of Computer Science, University of Copenhagen.
- Galle, P. (1986). Computer Methods in Architectural Problem Solving: Critique and Proposals. DIKU Report 86/6 (Part 1 of Ph.D. thesis). Copenhagen: Department of Computer Science, University of Copenhagen.
- Galle, P. (1986). Abstraction as a tool of automated floor-plan design. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 20, 21-46.
- Galle, P. (1983). A theorem relating to exhaustive generation of floor plans. Bulletin of Computer Aided Architectural Design(48), 30-33.
- Galle, P. (1981). An algorithm for exhaustive generation of building floor plans. Communications of the ACM, 24, 813-825.
- Faculty profile: https://kadk.dk/en/employee/galle
- Google Scholar profile: http://scholar.google.dk/citations?hl=da&user=y2k7KY4AAAAJ&view_op=list_works&sortby=pubdate
- LinkedIn profile: http://dk.linkedin.com/pub/per-galle/4/5bb/444
- ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0001-7831-8295
- Design research (theory of science for design, philosophy of design).
- Teaching (design theory, academic writing).
- Ph.D. supervision. (12 projects completed; 1 ongoing.)
- External examiner, Roskilde University, Performance Design (2010-12).
- Director of CEPHAD, Centre for Philosophy and Design (since 2006).
- Editorial work: Design Studies (Editorial Board member since Nov. 1997). Copenhagen Working Papers on Design (co-editor). FORMakademisk (member of Editorial Board since Sep. 2013). Reviewinf of manuscripts for various research journals and conferences.
- Evaluation: Occasionally in connection with employment or project proposals. (Clients include University of Cambridge, Dept. of Engineering.)
- Organizer: Chair of symposium on "Knowledge for Creative Decision-Making", InterSymp, Baden-Baden 2002. Co-organizer of international conference on Philosophy and Design, CEPHAD, Bornholm 2004. Main organizer of CEPHAD 2010 - The borderland between philosphy and design research.
- 1987: Ph.D. in Computer Science at the University of Copenhagen. (Title of dissertation: "Computerized space planning in architecture".)
- 1975: M.Sc. in Architecture (buildings), at The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture.
- As of February 1st, 2006: Associate professor, The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Scool of Design (formerly The Danish Design School; 2006-2012 under the auspices of Danish Centre for Design Research).
- Feb. 21, 2005 - Jan. 2, 2006: Trainee as a social & health worker, Birkerød Hjemmepleje.
- 2004 - Jan. 2005: Part-time teacher, Technical University of Denmark, Informatics and Mathematical Modelling.
- 1990 - 2004: Associate professor, Technical University of Denmark, Dept. of Planning (among others).
- 1986 - 1990: Assistant professor, University of Copenhagen, Dept. of Computer Science.
- 1983 - 1986: Ph.D. candidate, University of Copenhagen, Dept. of Computer Science.
- 1982 - 1983: Postgraduate student, Technical University of Denmark, Dept. of Graphical Communication.
- 1982 - 1987: Vice Manager, Nordisk Kollegium.
- 2015: Shortlisted for "Annual Design Studies Best Paper Award 2014".
- 2010: Shortlisted for "Annual Design Studies Best Paper Award 2009".
- 2006: Fellow of the Design Research Society (FDRS).
- 2002: Received the "Outstanding Scholarly Contribution Award" and "Distinguished Leadership in Research and Education Award", The International Institute for Advanced Studies in Systems Research and Cybernetics.
- Process and method
- Theory and philosophy
- Theory of science
- Philosophy of design
- Design theory
- Theory & practice
01/04/2012 → 31/12/2013
01/12/2009 → 31/05/2010
25/08/2009 → 29/01/2010
Christopher Alexander’s Battle for Beauty: Any Prospects of Victory? (Reply to a commentary by Professor Nikos Salingaros)Galle, P., 30 Sep 2020, In: She Ji: The Journal of Design, Economics, and Innovation. p. 380-385
Publications: Contribution to journal › Comment/debate › ResearchOpen AccessFile17 Downloads (Pure)
Christopher Alexander’s Battle for Beauty in a World Turning Ugly: The Inception of a Science of Architecture? (Invited paper for special section "Reading the Classics")Galle, P., 30 Sep 2020, In: She Ji: The Journal of Design, Economics, and Innovation. p. 345-375
Publications: Contribution to journal › Journal article › Research › peer-reviewOpen AccessFile66 Downloads (Pure)
Galle, P., Aug 2017, Routledge.
Publications: Other contribution › Communication
Galle, P., 6 Sep 2017, In: She Ji: The Journal of Design, Economics, and Innovation. 2, p. 322-342 SHEJI59.
Publications: Contribution to journal › Journal article › Research › peer-reviewOpen AccessFile714 Downloads (Pure)
Galle, Per (Recipient), 8 May 2015
Galle, Per (Recipient), 1 Apr 2006
Per Galle (Reviewer)5 Jul 2020 → 6 Jul 2020
Activity: Peer-review and editorial work › Editor of Research journal › Research
Per Galle (Consultant)22 Sep 2018 → 8 May 2019
Activity: Consultancy › Consultancy
Per Galle (Member)12 Mar 2018 → 13 Apr 2018
Activity: Membership › Membership in review committee
1 Media contribution
Press/Media: Press / Media