1950 en torno al Museo Louisiana 1970

Publikation: Bog / Antologi / Afhandling / RapportPh.d.-afhandling


The thesis “1950 around the Louisiana Museum 1970” analyses several works related to domestic space, which were carried out between 1950 and 1970 in Denmark, a golden age of modern architecture. After the isolation and limitations brought about by the war that blighted Europe, young Danish architects were keen to experiment with ideas of an international origin, encouraged by different circumstances. They find the best field of rehearsal to be the domestic space. The best architecture of that period in Denmark should be understood as a system composed of different authors, who have in common with each other many more similarities than differences, thus complimenting each other. In the interests of understanding, the study of a range of figures and buildings is necessary so that this system, the research of which is still in its infancy, can be completed. The thesis proposes a journey of discovery through the names of some of those protagonists, who showcased through their work that tradition and avant- garde could go hand in hand. The objective is to unveil the keys to Danish Modernity; to recognise, discover and revive the legacy of some of its protagonists in the domestic field whose lessons are seen as entirely of the present. For an architecture, the taking on of modern contributions with both moderation and caution, with its intimate relationship with architectural tradition and its own craft, will be one of its hallmarks. With the study set against several projects and versions, one can derive common values among their authors. In the same way, their affinities and differences in respect of the same issue emerge. This will allow an understanding of their measures in line with references and influences and enable the defining of the variables of their architectural spaces. The common line between the buildings selected will be their particular relationship with nature and the space where they are integrated. The facade, the place where the relationship between the interior and the landscape would be negotiated, would be the discriminating element in a distinct way for each one of them. It is through each of these facades that this relationship would extend, and far beyond their physical perimeter. The investigation has been structured into six chapters, preceded by an introduction. The first chapter outlines and analyses the backgrounds, figures and buildings most relevant to the Danish Tradition. This is to facilitate the understanding and elucidation of some of the keys to its modernity in the field of architecture, which came about with the clear intention to discover its own identity and expression. This thriving modernity is characterized by its moderate assimilation with foreign cultures with a critical eye, and finds its roots anchored in architectural tradition and its own handcraft. It is forged in the emergence of a common ideal of enormous personality which today has come to be valued as an authentic contribution to the sphere from a culture that was formerly seen as on the peripheries. What will be demonstrated is the path taken by previous generations to these works and the debate that surrounds them. The sensibilities for both the vernacular and the classic, which at first glance may seem contradictory, will dominate the debate with the same veracity and respectability. The so-called third generation of Sigfried Giedion will follow the way taken by the previous generation that revived the process between the classic and the vernacular, supported in spirit by the handcraft work and by tradition, with the objective of discovering the “truth” and the “original essence” of the architectural act. The second chapter analyzes the Varming house, built by Eva and Nils Koppel in 1953, which is situated in a residential area of Gentofte. This reinterprets Asplund’s vision of an interior landscape extending to the exterior, where we see a break with the conventional sturdy brick shell of the 1930s. It is the most powerful example of the union of tradition and innovation in their residential work. Its sober forms caught between Danish Functionalism and Modernity are characterized by their abstraction and clean shapes which accentuate its prismatic and brutal geometry. The displacement of the parts of which it is composed, one over the other, generate a rhythm. This is produced to varying scales and is closely linked to its forms and the selection of materials – brick and wood – that confer an organic character on the house. The building is anchored to the earth, finding solution at different levels through the study of place and topography. The result is an adaption constructed out of the landscape, in which the building gives form to the place and celebrates the experience of the natural setting. The unity of primitive structures appears to be present. It constitutes an example of “Asplund’s Promenade Idea”. Different routes of exploration within are available to the visitor, allowing for one’s own personal experience of the house, offering in turn for the vital chance to decide. The third chapter deals with Niels Bohr’s guest pavilion. Built in 1957, it is situated in a wooded area of Tisvilde Hegn and was the architect Vilhelm Wohlert’s first building. Rooted in the Danish Tradition, it represents a renewal based on the absorption of foreign influences: American architecture and the Japanese Tradition. The wooden box, perched atop a horizontal terrain, possesses the sensitive character of the living organism, ever-changing in accordance with the variations in daylight and temperature. When opened up, it creates an elongation of the interior space which extends into the surrounding nature and it expands towards the exterior space, allowing for its mobilisation. It establishes an architecture of flux. There is interest in the material, its texture and the emotional effect it inspires. The building’s proportions and dimensions are regulated by a module, which is adjusted by hand, bringing out the great unity of the building. The key to its aesthetic effect is its harmony and equilibrium, which convey serenity and beauty. The meeting with nature is the most fundamental lesson of the project, where a world of relationships is gentle to human being. The fourth chapter analyzes the Louisiana Museum project of 1958. It was the first project of the Danish architects Jørgen Bo and Vilhelm Wohlert. Wohlert’s experience in California where he was visited by Bo would be essential to the development of Louisiana, where the Danish identity is fused in assimilation with other cultures; the architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright, that of the Bahía area and principally the Japanese Tradition. The idea of the project was for an integrated work of art: architecture, art and landscape, which would coexist in the same space. A range of different resources would realize the residential character, such as the use of materials taken from a domestic environment, the attainment of human scale and the manner in which light is used. Flat roof plans show their artificiality and appear to float over glassed galleries. They accentuate the strength of the horizontal plan and establish a zigzag route of marked and measured rhythm. It is a rhythm that has to do with the incarnation of nature’s pulse, which is accompanied with plays of light, as well as material vibrations of different scales; imagery which uncovers a parallel analogy with Japanese culture. Everything is coordinated along a structural frame, which involves a disciplined construction and proportion. Louisiana cherishes nature’s principle of growth, to which its connection is profound. Here is a dynamism expressed through the disposition of the building, which evokes in some projects the Japanese Tradition. The white walls possess their own identity as forms in their own right. They advance, extending beyond the line of glass, moving freely along the structural order, accompanying a space that flows and in direct contact with nature that is itself in a constant state of flux. It creates a world of relationships, where dialogue exists between the landscape, art and architecture. The fifth chapter is dedicated to analyzing the Danish architect Halldor Gunnløgsson’s second house, built in 1959. It evokes both Japanese and American architecture, but is principally the result of a strong will and personal artistic discipline. The detached flat roof suspended above a large paved platform – itself continuing the constructed terrain of the place – has great presence and casts a heavy shadow beneath. In the interior, a single space, which can at length be divided and which flows around a central space. The space flows freely, extending through the transparency of its windows which give out onto two contrasting locations: an intimate garden courtyard, inspiring calm and tranquillity, and the wild nature of the sea which projects the colour of sky, both in a constant state of change. The project is realized in a rigorously formal manner. A perfect balance exists between the abstraction of its structure and its project. The wooden structure, whose order extends beyond the limits of its perimeter, is formed of complete porticos of free elements. It remains exposed, maintaining a close relationship with Mies’ concept of modernity. The preoccupation with the aesthetic effect is paramount and nothing is improvised. But in addition to this - the combination of materials and the play of textures - there is a tactile quality, a certain eroticism, which lingers all about. The constructive precision and its refinement are close to Mies. The experience of the architectural space is global. The influence of Japanese architecture, more conceptual than formal, is revealed in a respect for nature. It can be seen in the search for refinement through moderation, the elimination of the superfluous object that distract from the experience of place and the preoccupation with light and shade, where a certain parallel with the dark world of the Nordic winter is established. There is an understanding that space, rather than being an immaterial object defined by material surfaces, extends instead as dynamic interactions. The sixth chapter. This proposes a journey to discover some of the single-family houses of most interest which were constructed in the period, and which form part of the system being investigated. Through the study of comparison and one which is geared towards various themes, diverse conclusions are drawn regarding the system being researched. The expertise in substance and form will be a distinctive characteristic in Denmark, demonstrating an approach to the culture of the Orient, both conceptual and formal, and some common interests in certain American architecture. Its teachings sensitize us to a strengthened sense of proportion, scale, materiality, texture and weight and density of space. It values both the tactile and the visual. There is a sensitivity to nature, to the human, to the landscape and to the integrity of the work.
Bidragets oversatte titel1950 Around the Louisiana Museum 1970
ForlagFundacion Colegio Oficial de Arquitectos de Madrid (COAM)
Antal sider403
ISBN (Elektronisk)2659-661X
StatusUdgivet - 1 apr. 2016
Udgivet eksterntJa

Kunstnerisk udviklingsvirksomhed (KUV)

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